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A M O
. . .
I have slipped and i have fallen so far down I can't get out. Overwhelmed by my doubt. Things I said I'd never do I've done. Those I said I'd never be I've become. i have broken - I'm still breaking - cracked and wrecked, beyond repair. i can see that no one cares. Forgotten. Recalled. Smacks me in the face every time I fall. I cannot disregard, with each new fall I hit twice as hard. Would you be there for me? I would. I would be there for you. I would. Would you look up to see? I would. falling forward and looking up.
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There's a tear in my heart where the blood ran out. There's a tear in my heart where the love ran out. I thought we worked, pushed toward the same ends, I'll never be so quick to trust again. Disenchanted, disgusted, I regret that I trusted. I put my faith. My faith in you, you poisoned me through and through. I though we both shared the same injuries. Now I've found it's you who injures me. My heart is cracked from being left out in the cold. I know you'll pay for what you've taken - tenfold. Disenchanted, disgusted, I regret that I trusted. I put my faith. My faith in them, they twisted the knife further in.
CONTRARY to these lyrics, I'm scintillatingly happy right now! that's a 5 syllable word for SPARKLY! Maybe it's the fact that I'm the dream dreamers want to dream about... lol too many songs.
Things with the boyfriend are good. Things with the job(s) are bearable. things with the life.... what life?! lol
I love you, most likely. Either way, I'm sure you know.
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November 29, 2005
Over the last ten years, the
methods of pesticide and insect control used by
commercial farmers has taken a modern turn by
implementing genetic engineering into the pest defense
regimen. There has been an increasing prevalence of
Biotech corn, potatoes and most importantly impacting
the southwestern states: biotech cotton.
What is Biotech
Biotech cotton is a genetically modified form of
cotton containing a gene sequence transferred from the
naturally occurring bacterium Bacillus
Thuringiensis, which is also known as Bt
(McGinley). This modification allows the plant to
produce a naturally found insecticide to protect
itself against harmful pests such as the pink bollworm
What is Bacillus
Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterial
disease insects can acquire. In genetically altered
cotton plants, the Bt produces proteins, specifically
delta-endotoxin, the “toxic crystal”.
These proteins are manufactured by the genetically
modified plant, and thus become present all throughout
the plant’s structure (Schnepf et al.). When the
insect feeds on the plant’s seeds and fibers,
this protein is consumed and paralyzes the digestive
system of the insect by means of a chemical reaction
with cadherin, a protein found in the gut of insects
(Cranshaw). This paralysis prevents the insect from
consuming any more of the plant’s material and
thus will eventually cause the insect to die of
starvation, resulting in significantly less damage to
One Enemy: The Pink Bollworm
The pink bollworm is the main enemy biotech cotton
defends against. This is because according to
entomologist Thomas J. Henneberry, “the pink
is the most important cotton
pest in the world; [it] has caused millions of dollars
of damage and lost acreage. . .in the United
States." In the moth (adult) stage of the pink
bollworm’s life, it lays its eggs on cotton
bolls. The female adult bollworm moth can lay between
two hundred and four hundred eggs which then hatch in
between 3 and 5 days. The larvae then promptly bore
into the cotton bolls and consume the lint and the
seeds, before becoming adult moths ready to reproduce.
There are between three and five generations of larvae
produced per year, allowing for an incredible amount
of exponential growth within the pink bollworm
population in any given field of cotton.
For instance, consider a
population of two pink bollworms; a male and a female
(which will be known as the first generation). After
mating, the female lays (as we will assume for
purposes of a median number and consistent
calculation) three hundred eggs, producing 300 larvae.
Assuming that half of the larvae produced are female
and half are male, the second generation of bollworms
will produce a total of around 45,000 larvae. Again
assuming that half of the second generation is male
and half are female, the population of the third
generation will total around 6,750,000. Repeating the
calculations under the same assumptions used above,
the fourth generation will have a population of
1,012,500,000 and the fifth generation will contain an
astounding 151,875,000,000 members. If there are five
generations of pink bollworm in one year, the total
population ( first generation through fifth
generation) that year will total 152,894,295,002 pink
bollworms, roughly half of whom are going to lay
between two and four hundred eggs each. Remember that
this massive amount of bollworms originated from only
two bollworms, and consider the huge amount of growth
that would occur in a more realistic situation, with a
field of hundreds of bollworms producing so many
offspring. Each member of this massive population each
damaged one boll of cotton a piece when the insect was
in its larvae stage. For this reason, the pink
bollworm can become quite literally a massive problem
for cotton farmers.
After hatching, the larvae eat
the cottonseeds and “damage and discolor the
fiber”, causing the boll to be useless to
farmers. This process costs cotton producers
nationwide upwards of $21 million in prevention and
lost yields annually. Due to the extensive
population and its ability to multiply with such
alacrity, if the insect is left unhindered by
pesticide and allowed to live its natural life span,
infestations may spread over an entire crop and ruin
every single cotton plant, making the pink bollworm
quite a formidable enemy for farmers.
Decrease in Harmful
Pesticides Leads to an Increase in Money
Since Bt modified cotton was
developed and put into widespread commercial usage in
1997, the use of chemical “insecticide use on
cotton grown in Arizona has gone down 60
percent” according to Bruce Tabashnik, the head
of the University of Arizona’s Department of
Entomology and expert in insect resistance to
insecticides (Jensen). Not only does this drastic
reduction save the growers money -- around $80 per
acre – but it also saves time spent on the
application of pesticide. Since Bt is genetically
implanted into the plant’s gene sequence, the
plant itself produces the delta-endotoxin and the
pesticide cannot, for instance, get washed off of the
plant by rain or as easily deteriorated by the sun as
other chemicals, as it is constantly and internally
produced. The prevalence of “soft” insect
control methods are more environmentally friendly than
harsher spray pesticides (Jensen). This allows the
more beneficial insects (who are the natural enemies
of crop damaging pests) to survive, and prevents harm
to humans, wildlife and contamination to water
sources. The effect of the soft insect control methods
and the “good bugs acting together have driven
pesticide use to historic low levels. . . this is a
wonderful success of integrated pest management”
said Tim Dennehy, a University of Arizona
Distinguished University Outreach Professor of
Entomology and member of BIO 5 (Jensen, McGinley). Not
only is this a wonderful success for agiculture in the
southwest financially and environmentally, but this
solution is also highly effective.
The losses suffered by farmers due to infestation of
pink bollworms in their crops had decreased to a
little more than half (51.17%) the original numbers by
2004, driving the cost of crop yield losses down from
$8.48 per acre to only $4.34 per acre (Jensen). This
significant and surprising reduction in problems
caused by the pink bollworm are due to the continued
efficacy of the Bacillus Thuringiensis
genetic modifications present in the Bt cotton
Defensive Strategy in
As opposed to traditional
methods of pesticide, pink bollworms are not heavily
resistant to Bt modified cotton, even after eight
years (Jensen). The Bt modified crops are still highly
successful against pink bollworms mostly as a result
of careful planning by farmers in Arizona. The future
and effectiveness of Bt modified cotton in preventing
infestations of pink bollworms in cotton fields
is heavily dependent on the use of a crop planting
theory entailing refuges: portions of non-modified
cotton interspersed among the Bt modified crop
(Jensen). The photograph displayed above demonstrates
this theory, the greener areas in the foreground being
Bt modified cotton, with the whiter areas of the field
in the back of the photo being the
“traditional” cotton (Photo credit:
Timothy Dennehy). This plan attempts to encourage the
mating of Bt resistant moths with Bt-susceptible moths
that come from the refuge areas (Jensen). Any eggs
produced from such a coupling would be susceptible to
Bt, and would perish after eating the Bt modified
cotton (Jensen). Whereas in a scenario in which
all of the cotton grown in Arizona was Bt modified,
only the pink bollworm moths that are resistant to Bt
would survive, thus producing Bt resistant offspring
and resulting in the Bt modified cotton having no
effect on the threats and damage the pink bollworm
moths pose on crops (Jensen). This is not to say,
however, that the implementing of the refuges will
completely ward off the possibility of
resistance developing; as natural selection and
probability will allow at least a few completely
resistant insects survive. . . the goal of this tactic
it is to simply slow the process of resistance
Researchers at the University
of Arizona have recently run many tests to determine
whether the pink bollworm had become resistant to Bt
cotton, and were able to conclude that although a few
of the lot were resistant, the pink bollworms were not
widely able to resist the cotton’s particular
strand of Bacillus Thuringiensis as of yet.
Some of the bollworms, however, showed a genetic
mutation preventing them from producing cadherin, the
protein that Bt interacts with in the bollworm’s
gut and as a result becomes toxic to the
bollworm(Jensen). According to this data, Some
scientists believe that the genetic mutation of plants
will create the evolutionary need for pink bollworms
and other affected species to mutate and become
stronger and more resilient. There is fear that
although the current Bt modified cotton can hold off
pests for now, it will not be long before
significantly more drastic measures of pest control
are required to maintain the levels of productions
experienced by farmers at this time. As stated by
Gianni Tamino of Padua University, “these
insects will become more resistant and aggressive. As
a result. . . it will be indispensable to use larger
quantities of insecticides"(Cima, Zarro). Tamino
also notes that the Bt toxin will no longer be
effective if too much resilience to it is built up. In
that case, is there anything to replace Bt as such a
safe and effective toxin? Are combinations of several
toxins going to be enough to keep warding off insect
infestations in cotton plants? There is a new variety
of Bt modified cotton now available that employs two
different Bt toxins. According to Peter Goldsburough
of Purdue University, The presence of two toxins will
allow for a “synergistic effect” in which
the combination of the two toxins is “more than
the effect of the toxins added together. This can be
described as: [A * B] > A + B”. This layering
approach to pesticides may help to further slow the
resistance to toxins from developing , but again, it
is by no means a permanent solution to the problem of
The question researchers are
now facing is how this new combination of genetically
altered plants can be used to the biggest advantage in
“[staying] one step ahead of the pink
bollworms”, and whether science and genetic
modification technology will be able to keep up with
the building resistance on the part of the pink
bollworms (Jensen). Some scientists are of the opinion
that this type of genetic modification is quite the
opposite of beneficial, noting that the resilience of
the bollworm will be built up by the process of
natural selection-- the strongest will survive to
reproduce and create even stronger, more resilient
offspring – eventually making the relatively
vulnerable pink bollworm into what would essentially
be a super-pest (Cima, Zarro). This mutated form of
bollworm would be resistant to all forms of pesticide
currently used, and would force scientists and
entomologists to create potentially more dangerous
chemicals than ever used before to control the
The future needs of pest
control tactics are still yet to be determined, but
new strategies (such as the double layering of
insecticides) are being found and tested to ensure the
continued and future triumph over pests in crops of
all kinds. With recent innovations in pest and insect
control, science and genetic engineering have led to a
series of benefits for farmers and the environment
alike. Biotech cotton in conjunction with creative
planting strategies has managed to drastically reduce
the detrimental effects of the pink bollworm for many
years now. As new ways to combat pests are found,
techniques become more and more environmentally sound,
resulting in less ground water pollution and harm to
wildlife. Although there are obstacles such as insect
resistance and mutation developments to overcome, the
future of pest control looks bright thanks to
innovations in modern genetic and agricultural
Cima, Igor and Christian Zarro. “The
GMO menace”.AlterNet. 15 Nov. 2005. http://www.alternet.org/envirohealth/21600
Cranshaw, W.S.. “Bacillus
Thuringiensis”. Colorado State University
Extension-Horticulture. 14 Nov. 2005. http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/insect/05556.html.
Goldsburough, Peter. “HORT 250 -
Biotechnology in Agriculture; Lecture 16 - Transgenic
plants with resistance to insects” .Purdue
University. 14 Nov. 2005. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/courses/HORT250/lecture%2016
Jensen, Mari N. “Biotech Cotton:8
Bugs:0”. UA News. 12 Nov. 2005.
McGinley, Susan “Bt Cotton and Pink
Bollworm”. University of Arizona College of
Agricultureand Life Sciences. 15 Nov. 2005. http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/general/resrpt2000/pinkbollworm.pdf.
Schnepf et al. “Bacillus
Thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal
Proteins”.Highwire. 14 Nov. 2005. http://mmbr.highwire.org/cgi/content/full/62/3/775.
"I never lie. I willfully engage in a campaign of misinformation." (D, courtesy of S)
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I love that quotation :)
So TODAY! is MONDAY! and I've nothing TO DO! YAY!
::dances about gleefully::
Although I did get rather annoyed at Greg tonight. GRR! FEAR ME, FOR I AM ANGRY!
I drank nearly 32oz of water in less than 5 min.
I wove my web of shimmering lies, a painted fiction still gleaming, not yet dry. Strands of truth intertwined with my scintillating fantasy, bits of reality strewn about to hold the web from flying away. Here there is light and darkness, a relief canvas for the splashes of vibrant colors that spring forth from the life and vitality of the page, the ink.
Don't know where that came from. Don't care. I like it. ^_^
Salt and lemon, pepperberry tea. another shot of vodka, you'll be drunk as me! ( which is really stupid, considering I don't drink...) but I am drunk on emotion/
I just didn't know who mel gibson was. We watched hamlet some years back, and it was the version w/ gibson. I totallu didn't remember what his name was. Justina laughed at me. I just cried cause it was so ridiculus. Meh. >.< lol
night y'all! happy monday
My friend Greg Frasetti ( you may know him, old drummer) put 100 things that most people wouldn't know about him on his blog ( with filler facts like comments on the previous fact etc.). so I'm gonna out-do him. I think it will be a good way for me to say things. yay. Without further ado, I present to you 101 things about me!
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1. I only eat plain hamburgers. I think the other stuff people put on them is gross
2. When I was 8, I started reading encyclopedias. I got to M.
3. I put salt on NEARLY everything
4. I'm a BAND GEEK
5. I prefer earth science and anatomy and physiology to chemistry.
6. I know you don't care about half of these
7. If I had three wishes, I'd break all three "Aladdin" rules. I'd make 2 people fall in love, bring people/a person back from the dead and wish for one more wish; only it would be that my last wish was given to someone else to make ( of my choice)
8. I hate change.
9. I got pneumonia when I was 17.
10. I'm a very combative person.
11. Mostly in defense of people/things I care about.
12. Other times just for fun.
13. I actually like to sing. By Myself.
14. I can lie without flinching.
15. Especially about random dumb stuff to Justina :-D.
16. I find it amusing when she believes me, and then realizes she was pretty gullible to believe that.
17. I find it even more amusing when I'm being honest and serious and she thinks I'm kidding.
18. Everything that happens in my dorm room is because Justina is Chinese.
19. I used to play with Barbies.
20. And Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. And Hot wheels.
21. Yes, I did play with both Barbies and Turtles at the same time.
22. Ken and Michaelangelo were friends.
23. Barbie liked Leonardo better.
24. Yes, I can name all of the turtles.
25. I also used to play power rangers.
26. I was Trini. Or the evil witch, Rita.
27. I still call Jared Goulub "Zach" (he was the black ranger)
28. I love Mozzerella cheese.
29. I'm currently eating it out of a bowl. plain.
30. I got glasses in first grade.
31. I was nervous to go to school with them the first day.
32. Dustin, who was normally a meanie, was the first classmate/friend of mine who saw me.
33. He wasn't mean. He said "Wow! jenny! I like your glasses!"
34. To this day that has to be one of the best compliments anyone has ever given me.
35. In second grade, I was sitting at storytime, and Kyle pulled out the waistband of my pants, and looked at my underwear.
36. I've still got the apology letter the teacher made him write to me. (well, my mom does:))
37. My underwear had blue, purple and pink flowers on it that day.
38. I love thunderstorms and violent weather.
39. Summer is way way way better than winter.
40. I write everyday. Minimum of one page.
41. I love writing.
42. I was elected most likely to take over the world.
43. I wrote a poem last year that scared my english teacher.
44. It was about how I experience "anger".
45. Valentine's day is "Jen gets injured day"
46. In 5th grade, we did a chorus performance on valentines day. I fell off the risers onto the stage, and off the stage onto the cafeteria floor.
47. I almost drowned once. I slipped on a diving board, got my head whacked on the side of the pool, and started sinking.
48. My friend saved my life.
49. I've still got a flat spot on my head from that.
50. The longest friendship I've ever had has lasted since kindergarten.
51. The shortest relationship I've ever had was 4 days.
52. I never did like the Backstreet Boys. or Nsync.
53. Backstreet is a really strange sounding word. I'm not even sure it is one.
54. It's not a real word. I just looked it up.
55. Disneyland drugs their slushies.
56. If there was one memory I could go back to and enjoy for as long as I like, it'd be from my 5-year old birthday party. we decorated cupcakes, and mine was awesome. The moment when I blew out my candle, and took a bite was perfect; the definition of euphoria.
57. This must say something about my mind.
58. I've had great memories since then. Shared with more people who I'm still in contact with, but they all seem to be contaminated by a tinge of sadness. Or something.
59. When I was 5, I wasn't very aware of troubles and such. That's why I picked that memory.
60. I told someone that memory once, in more detail, and it made them cry.
61. I've got more than this number of e-mail addresses.
62. Yes, I know that that's pretty sad.
63. I sometimes catch myself thinking in object code.
64. I understand binary.
65. I am obsessed with big band/swing and WWII stuff:)
66. So was my old boss. ( the WWII stuff at least.) He's awesome.
67. I prefer bolder colors.
68. Although I hate floral prints, I love getting flowers.
69. I act like I'm innocent.
70. I am, for the most part.
71. Ironic that I'd put that at that number, no? ;)
72. But I'm so innocent I don't know what that number means.
73. I'm a hopeless romantic.
74. And a pitifully good good girl.
75. I originally learned alto sax cause I was pissed at the flute section. And most of my friends were in that section. Then they all left me.
76. Two of you who I let read this are really great competition for me. You don't know it though:)
77. I act like things don't affect me like they do.
78. They do affect me. I can get hurt.
79. It took me a really long time to be able to admit this.
80. I am still obsessed with instruments. I love them.
81. I miss that world.
82. Yes, I'm an alien to normal life.
83. At DCI competitions, no one goes to see the Brass.
84. They're like a noise making extension of the colorgaurd. only infinitely better.
85. I am involved with many lettered groups. None of them are Frats/sororities. (gsusa, aapa, pasaz, etc.)
86. I am addicted to Not Pr0n.
87. I once showered six times in one day.
88. I owned a vynil record before my first CD.
89. It was Pink Floyd "the wall" ( I love the cover! crazy!)
90. I also own Black Sabbath, on vynil. Many abums.
91. In sharp contrast to that, I also own Chicago. And Queen. And The Eagles. And AC/DC. And Led Zeppelin.
92. The first CD I owned was returned the day after it was given to me. It was hanson. nuff said.
93. I like knives and weaponry.
94. I have a favorite note on every instrument I play.
95. I've also named every instrument I've played and like.
96. I'm obsessed with pens. I prefer Jet Black fountain pens.
97. I actually don't like caramel frappucinos. I prefer Mocha.
98. I am amazed by very small things. I once read a quotation that said "a poet is simply a person who is enthralled with everything." if whoever wrote that is calling me a poet...I prefer "writer".
99. I once made a list of all my nicknames. There were over a hundred, just for me. I then listed all the things I call people I know. I'm still not done.
100. I'm still looking for a bracelet/replacement that I lost over 4 years ago :( it was my favorite piece of jewelry ever.
101. I'm addicted to memorizing things.
102. I love making people happy/smile.
103. I just did two more than I thought I would.
Ok! So, that's a buncha stuff about me. I hope you had fun. COMMENT! PLEASE! I LOVE COMMENTS :) I guess you'd call me a comment-whore.
today feels so summery it's indescribable.. I mean, so many things just seem "right" even though there is so much wrong... maybe it's the fact that I've been listening to things that remind me of long long sunblock, suds and water filled days of --yep, that's right-- carwashes. I loved them dearly, I did! That and the two weeks before school started, sleepover-work-a-holic-geek meetings with more soda and sugars than anyone needs. I miss the drama, the simplicity of everything for me back then.
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The drama was simple-- I know all of what's going on, keep out of it as much as possible, and BING! I'm everybody's ally! Of course, the drama that did involve me I enjoyed...I know that it would have been more fun if there hadn't been that to be oncerned with, but I think that it was better... it got me closer to the people I love. That I wouldn't have otherwise loved.
Speaking of which... love, don't have any, don't give any, but I still feel like I do. Weird, I know. I feel like it's supposed to be something big, very very soon, not involving love, I'm just rambling. I know that my little people are graduating and are no longer so little...one of them getting drunk every other weekend and the others ( well, all of my little ones collectively) Taking my place... It appears as though all my hard work has paid off... they're teaching what I taught, and using it too :).. the fact that everyone deserves a fair chance..even the really annoying people... people are worth a lot... everyone is. you've just got to find it, and bring it out. I feel so fulfilled.
I'm assuming even more leadership :) I'm not going to disclose how, but it's more work than some of you would approve of me doing... but guess what? I don't need your approval! ( although I thank you for your concern-- goodness knows that someone has to watch out for me :-P )
I feel like I'm about to burst, which is crazy... I've got 2 papers and an oral exam to preare for still, and here I am sitting thinking about the golden days of summer, and the people and love that I have experienced... I know what I'm supposed to do... this is so good. I can't understand what this is just yet, but things are warm and nostalgic....
I feel the sun on my skin...
Hmmmmmmmmmmm Yeah... If you have a brain and my phone # (I know, one or both disinclude at least 60% of you!) Then PLEASE gimme a call... it's quite important... LIFE CHANGING you could say..
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I'm so glad I haven't deceased
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My love for life will still increase
I'm so glad I'm alive and I'm not dead
I'm not dead!
k so I am in fact alive.
heh, that was good. Bye Now!
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Finally here it is. As my good friend Cain suggested (demanded,lol) , I am writing a journal entry that more than 3 people can see :) Whee! So, here it is.
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Spring Break at LAST!~ For a while there I thought it was just going to hover just within reach and then BAM! dissappear from all existence. Ableit my doubts, it has arrived. Feels kinda good. No, I retract that statement. It feels reaaaaally good. Kinda fuzzy. Sort of a fizzing euphoria..yet calm and pleasant...I don't know how to better describe it...maybe I'll post it later.
Something tells me that this spring break is going to be awesome. ( not relaxing in the least, thanks to the day camp I'm running, but that's alright.) maybe I can actually go out and relax for a couple hours. Go get lunch with a friend or something. Like last night, that was awesome. All my friends who had graduated were back in town and we went out for the afternoon/early evening. Maybe I'll be able to see if anyone wants to get food or something later. Or just hang out. who cares. Just get me out of the house :-P
heh, more later!
This is angelisewolf signing off.